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Jackson Brown
Jackson Brown

Reflector 3.2.1


a) Reflectance probability as a function of incidence angle for rough, etched, and polished crystals without reflector. b) 3D distribution of reflected rays for a 20 incident light (black) shone on a rough surface without reflector. Specular reflection would follow the red arrow; blue dots indicate the actual reflected rays.




Reflector 3.2.1


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Crystal-reflector interface. The incident photon is shown in green, the refracted photon reflected by the reflector (with possible further reflections at interfaces bordering the coupling medium) is in blue. Photons ultimately transmitted through the reflector are shown in magenta, while photons re-entering the crystal are shown in red.


a) Spectra of reflectors used in the simulations and experiments for validation. Values for the ESR are taken from (Park, 2012) and Lambertian reflectors from (Janecek, 2012). ESR shows a strong wavelength dependency never taken into account in published models and that slightly overlaps with the LSO emission. b) Other reflectors used in simulations (not included in experiments).


a) Reflectivity and b) transmittance for all combinations of rough crystal and reflectors used in experiments. Green, red, and blue curves show a much flatter reflectivity when a reflector is attached to the crystal.


Distribution of reflected and transmitted rays for a rough crystal with no reflector, Teflon, ESR coupled with air and ESR coupled with optical grease (clockwise). Top part represents the crystal space, bottom part the outer medium. The black arrow indicates the incidence angle of 20; the red arrow shows a perfect specular reflection of the green ray by a flat surface; the magenta arrow shows the refraction of the green ray after the reflector.


Distribution of reflected and transmitted rays for a polished crystal at incidence 20, with no reflector, Teflon, ESR coupled with air and ESR coupled with optical grease (clockwise). In contrast to the rough crystal, the distribution of reflected rays is much narrower and centered on the specular reflection for a flat surface (red arrow). The rays reflected by the reflector (green dots) show a much broader distribution for Teflon than ESR (see inset).


Light output for rough crystals with no reflector, Teflon, or ESR (air-coupled or grease-coupled). a) The normalized outputs show excellent agreement between experiments (EXP) and simulations (SIM) for all types of reflectors. b) The maximum light output, taken at the depth closest to the photodetector show reasonable agreement.


Optical transport in a rough crystal with no reflector, Teflon, or air-coupled ESR (clockwise). Histograms of track length values for all detected photons for emitted at different DOIs show that the presence of a reflector strongly lengthens the transport of optical photons. The bottom right plot illustrates the differences between reflectors.


Light output for polished crystals with no reflector, Teflon, or ESR (air-coupled or grease-coupled). a) Normalized outputs for experiments (EXP) and simulations (SIM). b) Maximum light outputs, taken at the depth closest to the photodetector (2 mm).


Optical transport in a polished crystal with no reflector, Teflon, or air-coupled ESR (clockwise), for interactions at different DOIs. The reflectors show comparable behavior, and do not lengthen the transport length significantly (bottom right plot).


a) Different scenarios for suboptimal reflector application to the crystal. b) Microscopic picture of a LSO rough crystal wrapped and used in experiments (side view). Note the tapered edges, the misalignment of some layers, and the small gap at the tip (shown by the red arrows).


3.2.1 Traditional Designs (Limited & Full Service) - Mailbox designs which conform to Figure 1 and meet capacity requirements specified in 3.15.1 will be classified as Traditional. Designs incorporating a carrier signal flag (see 3.7) will be classified as full service mailboxes. Designs with no flag will be classified as limited service (see 3.12). As specified in 3.5, a rear door is permitted to enable the customer to remove mail without standing in the street. The use of locks, locking devices or inserts is prohibited.


Beam contributor means an indivisible optical assembly including a lens, reflector, and light source, that is part of an integral beam headlighting system and contributes only a portion of a headlamp beam.


Effective light-emitting surface means that portion of a lamp that directs light to the photometric test pattern, and does not include transparent lenses, mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or rims that may glow or produce small areas of increased intensity as a result of uncontrolled light from an area of 1/2 degree radius around a test point.


Integral beam headlamp means a headlamp (other than a standardized sealed beam headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S7.3 or a replaceable bulb headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S7.5) comprising an integral and indivisible optical assembly including lens, reflector, and light source, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S7.8.5.2 or paragraph S7.8.5.3 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.


Replaceable bulb headlamp means a headlamp comprising a bonded lens and reflector assembly and one or two replaceable headlamp light sources, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S7.8.5.2 or paragraph S7.8.5.3 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.


S5.1.1.4Reflective material conforming to Federal Specification L-S-300, Sheeting and Tape, Reflective; Non-exposed Lens, Adhesive Backing, September 7, 1965, may be used for side reflex reflectors if this material as used on the vehicle, meets the performance standards in either Table I or Table IA of SAE Standard J594f, Reflex Reflectors, January 1977.


S5.1.1.14A trailer that is less than 30 inches in overall width may be equipped with only one taillamp, stop lamp, and rear reflex reflector, which shall be located at or near its vertical centerline.


S5.1.1.29A trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in conformance with paragraph S5.7 of this standard need not be equipped with the reflex reflectors required by Table I of this standard if the conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the reflex reflectors required by Table I.


(a) Plastic lenses (other than those incorporating reflex reflectors) used for inner lenses or those covered by another material and not exposed directly to sunlight shall meet the requirements of paragraphs 3.3 and 4.2 of SAE J576 JUL91 when covered by the outer lens or other material;


(b) After the outdoor exposure test, the haze and loss of surface luster of plastic materials (other than those incorporating reflex reflectors) used for outer lenses shall not be greater than 30 percent haze as measured by ASTM D 1003-92, Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastic;


(c) After the outdoor exposure test, plastic materials used for reflex reflectors and for lenses used in front of reflex reflectors shall not show surface deterioration, crazing, dimensional changes, color bleeding, delamination, loss of surface luster, or haze that exceeds 7 percent as measured under ASTM D 1003-92.